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Eliminate "ecological poverty", the photovoltaic industry must give strength
Beware of another type of poverty: “ecological poverty”！
In recent years, the country has increased the environmental governance with the power of the whole country. The environmental conditions in some areas have also improved significantly. For example, the air quality in the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan region has changed dramatically in winter and spring, but the domestic ecological environment still faces enormous pressure. Time and large areas of smog weather still plague most of China's provinces and cities. From this perspective, the environmental and ecological problems have become as serious as the masses of the people in the past, and they have not been able to wear warm clothes. They have even derived another kind of poverty, that is, “air poverty” and “environmental poverty”. And "ecological poverty."
In this tough battle of “air, environment and ecological poverty alleviation”, the development of renewable energy represented by photovoltaic and wind energy is one of the main forces to win the battle. In the past ten years, China's photovoltaic industry has achieved a splendid turn from catching up, going hand in hand to comprehensively surpassing. It has been globally leading in technology, scale and cost, and has firmly adhered to the global photovoltaic industry.
However, in the process of the photovoltaic industry moving forward in depth, some problems have also become a roadblock to hinder the long-term healthy development of the industry.
Slamming the road to healthy development of the photovoltaic industry.
At present, China's photovoltaic industry must collect all kinds of taxes and fees from upstream raw materials, to the production of a series of components such as mid-stream battery chips and components, and to downstream photovoltaic power generation. If you consider the social security factor, the tax is even more alarming. From the perspective of photovoltaic power generation, the tax per kWh has reached 1 gross 7 points to 2 gross 3 points. In fact, the high cost of various taxes and fees has become the first factor affecting the formation of comparative advantages in the photovoltaic industry, leading to subsidies for photovoltaic power generation.
In addition, the current control ideas for controlling the scale of photovoltaic power generation through indicators are neither consistent nor conducive to the healthy development of industries under market conditions. Moderate and large-scale development of the industry, which promotes the continuous updating of equipment and technology, is a key factor for the continuous reduction of photovoltaic costs. If the scale of development is suppressed by indicators, the rate of cost reduction will be greatly slowed down.
In the past ten years, the cost of photovoltaic power generation has dropped by 90%, and the dawn of full-price Internet access has emerged, and subsidies will not expand indefinitely. Tsinghua University's Energy Internet Innovation Research Institute report shows that China's photovoltaic power generation subsidies will peak between 2022 and 2025, and the subsidy amount will be between 100 billion and 175 billion yuan. From 2008 to 2017, the state has subsidized more than 1 trillion yuan for coal-fired power desulphurization and denitrification.
Call for marketization mechanisms and reform measures
Since the reform and opening up, the products under the planned economic system of PV indicators still exist, and how the indicators are properly distributed not only makes the energy departments at all levels squander, but also breeds space for power rent-seeking and corruption.
Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the central government has emphasized that the market should play a decisive role in resource allocation. The National Energy Administration has issued the "Notice on Launching a Pilot Program for Distributed Power Generation Marketization" to promote more power purchasers and power producers. Direct market-oriented transactions have led to the completion of photovoltaic power consumption and subsidies. Through competitive bidding, enterprises can fully accept the market test and achieve the effect of survival of the fittest.
As a green power photovoltaic power generation, it should become a key industry supported by the state. It should be clear that all corporate income tax, value-added tax and its surcharges should be reduced or exempted to provide a green development channel. At the same time, the implementation of comprehensive reductions and reductions from photovoltaic raw materials and equipment manufacturing, to all relevant tax burdens in all aspects of photovoltaic power generation, calculated from the total amount, this part of the tax will not have a major impact on China's current fiscal revenue.
The marketization mechanism and policy measures can be used to solve the problem of PV subsidy funds. In terms of marketization mechanism, it is recommended to fully implement the carbon tax policy, supplemented by the “green card” system, which will effectively solve the problem of renewable energy subsidies. By collecting the carbon tax, the cost and cost of carbon emissions can be further increased, thereby reducing the consumption of fossil fuels such as coal and petroleum, and fundamentally solving the problem of smog and global warming in China.
Since 2008, the state has subsidized coal-fired power desulfurization and denitrification for 10 years and invested more than one trillion yuan to prevent the emission of pollutant gases. As a strategic emerging industry related to the respiratory health of the people of the whole country, China's finance industry is also fully capable of supporting the subsidy amount of 100 billion to 150 billion yuan per year.
In order to better protect the health of all citizens and meet the growing needs of the people, the country is in urgent need and fully capable of giving full play to its political and institutional advantages, and achieving air for 5 to 10 years, just like today’s poverty alleviation. The environment and ecology are completely “poverty”. (Liu Hanyuan, author of the National People's Congress, Chairman of the Board of Directors of Tongwei Group).